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uhv reconstructs china’s energy lifeline

release time:2007-05-23 publisher:

the surging water of jinsha river, rolling ahead ceaselessly, accumulates the endless energy and wealth.

as the leading project of hydropower transmission in the basin of jinsha river, sichuan-shanghai ±800kv ehv dc transmission demonstration project will transport tens of millions of kw of strong power to the east.

from southwest china to east china, along the same direction as the yangtse river, ehv dc seems like a strong and smooth energy lifeline on chinese economic domain, contributing to endless energy to the development of china.

clean energy is from west china water of jinsha river makes it warm

surging waves among high mountains are converted to the energy needs of metropolis a thousand miles away. xiangjiaba is located in southwest sichuan, the last stage of cascade development of jinsha river. xiangjiaba hydropower station with the installed capacity reaching 6 million kw was formally started on november 27, 2006, and the development process of water resources in southwest china suddenly accelerated.

the annual average water volume of jinsha river is 14500000m3, equal to three yellow rivers. the river is reduced by more than 1m per 1km. these figures are charming in the eye of “hydropower people”. the development of jinsha river hydropower has great significance to solution for the energy dilemma inchina.

since 1992, gdp of shanghai has maintained a double-digit growth for the past 15 years, and the power demand grows increasingly. however, during the period of “the eleventh five-year plan”, in order to implement the overall deployment of energy-saving and emission-reduction of the state council, shanghai should shut down 2.1 million kw small thermal power units. in addition, contained by land, environmental protection and primary energy transport, it is unlikely to continue the planning and construction of power project in the city. in order to meet the demand for further growth in electricity consumption, the power-receiving channel should be newly constructed, and power-receiving intensity should be increased.

whether can the surging waves among high mountains be converted to the energy needs of metropolis a thousand miles away? deputy director dong yongchu of bureau of high-technology research and development, chinese academy of sciences analyzes that over 2/3 of coal resources inchinaare distributed in north china, 80% of hydropower resources are distributed in west china, and over 2/3 of energy needs are distributed in central china and east china. the basic national conditions with unbalanced energy and productivity development inchinasituation determine that large-scale optimal allocation of energy resources is imperative.

based on such basic national conditions, state grid corporation of china put forward after thorough research that planning and construction of ac 1000kv and dc ±800kv ehv power grid, breakthrough in constraints on power self-balance in local area, optimal allocation of power resources in the larger range, and promotion of integrated development of large coal power bases, large hydropower bases, and large nuclear power bases can realize effective utilization and exploitation of limited energy resources in china.

experts at home and abroad list six advantages of ehv transmission: large transmission capacity, long transmission distance, low line loss, low engineering investment, high efficiency of land use and strong networking ability. among these, transmission distance is one of key factors for selecting voltage of dc project. if the transmission distance is longer, the advantage of ehv dc transmission is more obvious in technical and economic index.

ehv dc transmission technology has a huge space for application worldwide. the international meeting of ehv transmission technology held in beijing on november 28, 2006 revealed that large-scale energy bases will successively appear in amazon basin in brazil, congo river basin in africa and east india, which are generally over 1500m from the load center, and ±800kv dc transmission mode is widely studied.

in china, ehv power grid can play a fundamental role of the market in resource allocation, to effectively regulate supply and demand of electric power, guide the electric power investment, and improve the efficiency of energy use. after scientific and tight demonstration and work practice, the company’s understanding of ehv is not limited to needs satisfaction, but also containing a strategic grasp. after several ehv technical seminars and discussions, national development and reform commission finally determined that the development of ehv transmission inchinais very necessary, without any insurmountable barrier.

for both ends of ehv dc transmission lines, this conclusion is more realistic. in the past, they drank from the same river. from now on, the electric power will gather the brilliant prospects for the development from sichuan to shanghai.

 “ehv power grid can solve the problems of transmission capacity and limited channel of electric power in sichuan, to promote the resource advantage of sichuan hydropower change to economic advantage, and strengthen the connection between sichuan power grid and state power grid, to construct the platform for sichuan to participate in optimal allocation of national power resources.” wang huaichen, vice governor of sichuan province, said.

shanghai mayor han zheng clearly expressed the support for dc ehv demonstration engineering construction. it is estimated that, during the period of “the twelfth five-year plan”, shanghai needs to deliver approx. 15 million kw. for delivery of each 10 million kw of electric power, the receiving-end city can reduce 21 million tons of coal consumption, 150,000,000 tons of water, and reduce the emissions of 320000t of so2, 70000t of nox and 14000000t of co2. clean energy is from west china, and it is of double meaning to shanghai that is in urgent need of energy.

science argumentation make every effort

the science argumentation brought a kind of new awareness, which is the germination of new thought and new idea. on october 25, 2005, after a trek for a day, dozens of experts came to beautiful xiangjiaba. facing the surging river, they talked about good prospects for the project. the next day, the company held the review meeting of final report on feasibility study on ±800kv dc transmission project for power transmission to central china and east china in the first stage of jinsha river, and ±800kv dc transmission project for the first-class and the second-class power transmission to east china of jinping. an old expert said, “although the field condition is tough, i want to go and see myself.” under the calling of the company’s highly responsible spirit, the hard-working huge expert team is persistently striving for the science argumentation of the demonstration project.

according to the incomplete statistics, as of 2006, more than 2000 people have directly participated in ehv research and consulting work, including more than 30 academicians, more than 300 professors and professor-level senior engineers, and more than 800 senior engineers and doctors. more than 240 special argumentation meetings have been successively held, and more than 7000 experts and representatives are present.

the consensus is difficult to achieve and the process of argument is precious. in july 2004, national development and reform commission held argument meeting of report on plan and design of the transmission system in the first stage of jinsha river. with academicians zhou xiaoxin and zhu yinghao as team leaders, the panel with more than 30 senior experts in the relevant field participated in consultation and review of design report. the meeting unanimously agreed on the scheme for consumption of the first-stage power energy of jinsha river in the power grid of central china and east china recommended by the report, and the use of pure dc transmission scheme.

ehv dc transmission scheme starts to enter the public view. the old expert zeng dewen is the manager of planning, design and optimal argument project of transmission system of xiluodu and xiangjiaba hydropower station, and he is preserving three books on planning during the argument period. he opened plan diagrams for reporters and pointed out every change: the output mode preliminarily set is 5-circuit 500kv ac, and later adjusted to 4-circuit ±500kv dc. state grid corporation ofchinaoptimized the scheme again in 2004, putting forward the scheme for 3-circuit ±800kv dc.

the advantages of ehv dc transmission have been widely recognized that its transmission capacity is large, which can fully use the transmission corridor and effectively save land resources. the transmission capacity of 1-circuit ±800kv ehv dc is equal to the transmission capacity of 2-circuit ±500kv dc or the transmission capacity of 6-circuit 500kv ac, while the occupied corridor width is 50%~70% of the latter ones.

in fact, the proposal of better scheme each time is that the company made the deeper thought standing on the scientific position with a serious attitude. under the gradual guidance of science argumentation, the correct path is gradually clear.

 “the discussion is so hot!” the assistant chief engineer yu zheng of electric power design institute of china power engineering consulting group co., ltd. clearly remembered the frank and hot discussion scene. on november 20, 2005, the company determined the scheme for voltage distribution of double converter of the demonstration project, and present experts spoke freely, carrying out hot discussion on schemes for distribution of different voltages such as “500kv 300kv” and “400kv 400kv”. considering convenience and security of the operation, after repeated measurement, the experts suggest using the voltage allocation of “400kv 400kv”. the examples of such elaborate arguments are too numerous to mention.

the location of sending-end converter station does not occupy arable land, while selecting hills. after leveling, the earthwork can be balanced. a trend line map hung on the ehv construction department of the company shows that the future lines avoid areas such as qingfeng temple provincial forest park, and furongdong national nature reserve, thus to realize the maximum protection of the environment. because of the environmentally friendly feature of the demonstration project, on march 13, 200, ministry of water resources formally approved the scheme for conservation of water and soil of sichuan-shanghai ±800kv dc transmission project.

after years of exploration, achievements have been made. on june 20, 2006, the issuance of notice of general office of national development and reform commission on preparations for the development of ac 1000kv and dc ±800kv ehv transmission experimental demonstration project marks that ehv leaps into a new stage.

on september 26, department of science and technology held the “project feasibility study on national technology support program”, to carry out argument on the project of development and demonstration of ehv system, and formed opinions as follows: the completion of this project makes china grasp ehv ac/dc key technology, occupy commanding point of ac/dc transmission and distribution technology in the world, and lead ehv transmission and distribution technology in the world. at the same time, it has great significance to the promotion of upgrading of electrical manufacturing industry inchina, and occupation of international market for transmission and distribution equipment.

depend on localization and accelerate our speed

in ehv era, state grid corporation of china will continue to walk firmly on the way depending on the localization. as one of the largest power machinery and electrical equipment manufacturing enterprises all over the country, the study on ehv dc smoothing reactor by general factory of beijing electrical power unit is hopeful. liu zhigang, the secretary of party committee of this factory said to the reporter, “we cannot image if there is no ehv. the enterprises must pay attention to it to become the leader. the development of power grid drives the development of equipment manufacturing enterprise. we will return to the second class from the first class if our steps are not tight.” general manager zhang yalin of china xd group corporation believes that state grid corporation ofchinahas always supported the development of manufacturing industry of domestic equipment, and supported the development of the equipment with independent intellectual property right.

the academician zheng jianchao believes that the development of ehv technology can promote the progress of high-end manufacturing technology in china, and favor the improvement of the manufacturing level of the whole power industry, to drive the independent innovation in scientific research and design.

looking back on the development course of the company of promoting ehv dc project, it is the experience in a struggle course of independent innovation. the expert in dc ehv wu yuanxi said that gezhouba-shanghai line on the early stage once depended on foreign side. however, after dc projects such as three gorges-changzhou, three gorges-shanghai, and three gorges-guangdong are completed and put into operation, we have completely grasped system design method, manufacturing technology, process requirement and test standard of ±500kv dc transmission equipment.

on april 6, the purchasing document for equipment tender of converter station of demonstration project was released in beijing. this press conference is widely commented as a strong signal send by the company for supporting dc equipment localization.

the senior securities analyst peng jizhong concerning ehv of guotai junan securities believes that from the released purchasing scheme, the objective of domestic manufacturing proportion of system research, complete sets of equipment design, dc control and protection system equipment, converter valve, thyristor and smoothing reactor is 100%. the objective of domestic manufacturing proportion of the converter transformer is over 60%, which comprehensively reflects the support for independent development of dc equipment of state grid corporation ofchina.

the thyristor is the key to determine the transmission ability of the demonstration project. the use of traditional 5-inch thyristor is feasible in the technology, but the technology is not advanced with high cost, which cannot occupy the commanding point of the technology. the use of 6-inch thyristor highlights the company’s ambition and courage to support the localization.

the design of 6-inch thyristor, type test and delivery test must be strictly checked, and state grid corporation of china will constantly strive for excellence. in three gorges transmission project, the operation reliability of tested thyristor and value is extremely high: only one of 12528 thyristors operating in three gorges 3-circuit dc is damaged, and there is no damaged localized thyristor during the operation of lingbao project.

the confidence of equipment manufacturers is more. at present, 6-inch thyristor samples of the maximum diameter and the highest high voltage capacity have been successfully developed inchina.

a private enterprise-jiangsu shemar electric co., ltd. that has been founded for only 11 years is achieving leaping development depending on strong guidance of ehv. the power composite hollow insulators developed and produced by the enterprise are expected to assist with the localization of core components of ehv equipment-power bushings. when zhang baoguo, the deputy director of national development and reform commission visited the enterprise on july 3, 2006, he encouraged it to make more contributions to the power industry inchina.

the company has advocated that at the beginning of the development of ehv dc project, most of design and equipment manufacturing can be directly localized, and the remaining part of design and equipment manufacturing can be carried in form of cooperative development or international purchasing. the manufacture of part key equipment can cooperated with the foreign manufacturer, which should be certainly made inchinawith the purpose of gradually grasping the core technology.

the concept of localization is extended. from history and reality, the growth of equipment manufacturing industry and the enhancement of the competitiveness inchinamust be formed in an open and competitive market environment. the protection without principles only results in damages. deputy general manager shu yinbiao of the company said to dozens of persons in charge of equipment manufacturers that the tender for the demonstration project will cause fierce competition to the utmost. the manufacturing enterprise should start and carry out the study on scientific research and key technology as soon as possible, to manufacture electrical equipment adaptive to the engineering construction in time.

this is no doubt a spur. a person in charge of the power equipment works said, “the demonstration project is the important support project of automation of ehv dc transmission equipment inchina, which will provide samples for more large-capacity and long-distance ‘west-to-east electricity transmission’ projects in the future.”

the project is progressing and trying to match the sky in height

at the completion of the demonstration project, 18 world records such as the highest voltage class and the largest transmission capacity will be hit. a large ship carrying the main transformer arrives at the xiaoanba port of jinsha river after sailing for more than 2800km of yangtze river waterway and 30km of jinsha river waterway. after that, this main transformer is sent to a large car, which is driving to the location of converter station over mountains.

this is 3d walkthrough image for bulk transportation in the projects of xiangjiaba and xiluodu hydropower station. in 2010, this scene appeared on the bank of jinsha river indeed. in order to send the converter transformer with 320,000 kv a of single-unit capacity and nearly 400 tons of weight to the location of station, state grid corporation ofchinacarried out comprehensive survey on the traffic capacity of bridges and tunnels along the way.

preparedness ensures success, and unpreparedness spells failure. the challenges faced by the demonstrative engineering construction are world class, and effort must be made carefully for a long time.

on march 19, 2005, the company set up ehv dc task force after consulting with parties at home and abroad in the hope of combining scientific research institute with the experienced manufacturers, to carry out work jointly.

zheng jin, the task force leader from state grid dc engineering construction, still remembered that more and more units participated, and even all famous scientific research institute and manufacturers at home and abroad participated finally, which made communications more efficient. obviously, the company’s gathering of wisdom in an open attitude is the driving force for the development of ehv.

in order to absorb all useful research findings in the world, in june 2005, general manager liu zhenya visited russia with chinese government delegation, to investigate ehv transmission technology. during the investigation, power executives ofchinaandrussiaexchanged the opinions on problems related to planning and construction of ehv transmission lines.

after laying a solid foundation, facing the large-scale demonstration project, the builders start to challenge world-class difficulty in power technology with realistic and innovative spirit.

the expert su zhiyi of china electric power research institute told the reporter that ehv dc transmission lines are across areas with various climatic conditions such as high-elevation, icing and heavy pollution. before implementing the project, there is no successful precedent to follow worldwide for overcoming the impact of line electromagnetic environment and keeping insulation characteristics in such bad conditions, and further test research should be carried out.

in august 2006, state grid corporation of china laid the foundation stone for ehv dc test base in beijing, and an international first-class comprehensive test platform that will hit 12 records in ehv transmission technology field was formally started.

because there is no ehv dc project commercially operating in the world, problems such as system research, complete sets of equipment design, engineering design, equipment manufacturing, construction installation, operation and maintenance of the demonstration project needs innovation.

in outlet plan of xiluodu and xiangjiaba, the company carried out the first regional plan and comprehensive optimization of channels, comprehensively integrating gps technology, remote sensing technology, gis technology and digital photogrammetry to power engineering survey and design, to largely improve the level of electric power survey and design.

a good mechanism will be throughout the engineering construction. as the demonstration project gradually changes to engineering construction from technical research, the company has established the work system of leadership and professional division, undertaking their own responsibilities, which has great significance to the guarantee for completing landmark plan.

on may 30, 2006, the company formally released system function specifications and equipment specification (the first edition) of sichuan-shanghai ehv dc project, and equipment manufacturers reacted enthusiastically. on november 15 in the same year, the coordination meeting of formulation of ehv ac/dc transmission standard was held in beijing. the reporter understood that the company is expected to obtain a batch of domestic leading and international first-class technical achievements with independent intellectual property right, forming a series of standard specifications in design, manufacture, construction, maintenance and management of ±800kv dc transmission and distribution project, thus to promote the better and faster development of ehv.

at the completion of the demonstration project, 18 world records such as the highest voltage class and the largest transmission capacity will be hit. in 2012, after sending the electric power generated by the first unit of xiangjiaba, ±800kv ehv dc transmission lines will continue to move towards the west, making more power stations a necklace on jinsha river, to realize power transmission within a larger range.

today, the step of ehv is striding forward. by approx. 2020,chinawill basically form ehv power grid in north china, central china and east china, and the capability of “power transmission from west to east and mutual supply between south and north” will jump again. a new era of regional coordination and resource integration with ehv as backbone network frame and coordinated development of multi-level power grids is walking towards us.

published on state grid news on may 22, 2007

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